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Post Classical Period Review

State Building, Expansion, and Conflict:
Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged. The fate of cities varied greatly, with periods of significant decline and periods of increased urbanization buoyed by rising productivity and expanding trade networks.

Interactions between Humans and the Environment:
There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens, including epidemic diseases like the bubonic plague, throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes. Innovations stimulated agricultural and industrial production in many regions.

Development and Interactions of Cultures:
The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects. Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers.

Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems:
Improved transportation tech and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks.

Development and Transformation of Social Structures:
Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the effect of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.
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