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Strcuturing documents with <div>
Formatting arbitrary text with <span>
identifying regions = class and id attributes

tables are used to display tabular information
tables start with outer <table>, rows with <tr> and entity within the <td> tag

tables can have captions and header:
A caption can be added to a table with the <caption> tag, placed immediately after the <table> tag
the <th> tag is used to define table headers

Tables can be nested
cells in a table can be merged using:
-rowspan to specify that a cell (td/th) spans multiple rows
- colspan to specify that a cell (td/th) spans multiple columns

if a cell is not defined, it is classed as empty and has no border

Structuring Pages:
The <div> tag is used to identify groups of elements which are to be treated together, particularly to structure the overall layout of a page
- usually best to use <div> as the unit to position elements in a document

Has class and/or id atributes defined:
<div class="main" id="CMPtoplevel"> </div>
Formatting and positioning can then be applied from a stylesheet

Identifying HTML elements
> Most HTML elements can be identified as a member of a class or uniquely
- the class attribute identified a group of elements which can be formatted in the same way using CSS
- The ID attribute uniquely identified an element

Structuring tags in HTML5
- header - for introductory or navigational aids
- footer for a section
author details, copyright information, etc
- nav is a section of the document intended for navigation

Document Flow
> article, is an independent piece of content, such as a blog entry or newsaper article
> section shows the document structure, can be used with h1...h6 element.
> aside is a piece of content that is only slightly related to the rest of the page, similar to a sidebar in a magazine article

figure refers to a non-text unit of a document
<video src="eg.webm" controls></video>

figcaption can be used for an optional caption

Formatting text: <span>
the span tag is used to identify blocks of text - such as parts of a paragraph - which can be formatted in some way

> a common use of span is to format a fragment of text differently
<span class="boldblue">Some important text</span>
<span dir="rtl" lang="arrgnng"</span>

What is HTML5
A suite of tools for:
- markup and media display (HTML)
- presentation - CSS
- interaction - JavaScript
- APIs for loca storage, geolocation

> associated standards for 2D and 3D graphics

Versions of HTML:
has evolved a long way
- HTML 4.01 - is the end of the line 'classic' HTML
> poor separation of display from structure
> lax implementations, difficult to maintain
XHTML 1.0 is the first really clean standard
> because it is an XML language, the implementation is very strict
> easy to maintain, repurpose, so preferred for large websites

Now it's all HTML5
- Compatible with XHTML and HTML 4
can write HTML5 in either style

the <canvas> tag uses JavaScript to give pixel-by-pixel control over a rectangular area
> paths
> gradients
> image manipulation
> events

- Scalable Vector Graphics allows direct inclusion of vector drawing commands
- 3D graphics via a JavaScript API based on OpenGL

Local Data Storage:
- session
- long term
Replace Cookies
- cookies can't store much data so they are transmitted by every request to the server
Manipulated by JavaScript, browser based SQLite or IndexedDB

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
Motivation for CSS:
> Problems
- Devices display pages differently
- Phones, tablets and other small devices need different displays
- Printers often need different displays

> Clean separation of content from display instructions helps
> Styles introduced in HTML 4.0

Cascading style sheets
> Multiple style definitions are merged
> Priority order (later overrides earlier):
4 - browser default
3 - external style sheet
2 - internal style sheet (contained in the <head> tag)
1 - in-line style (define in attributes of an element)

CSS rules
> CSS stylesheets are made up of rules
> a CSS rule has 3 parts
- selector: defines the part of the document affected by the rule
- property: specifies the aspect of layout that's being set
- value: the value for the property

Rules and media types:
- can have separate stylesheets for different media using multiple <link> tags

<link rel=stylesheet type="text/css" media="all" href="basis.css">
<link rel=stylesheet type="text/css" media="handheld" href="mob.css">

Rules can be restricted to certain media types
@media handheld
@media screen

- class selectors:
> body {}
> {}
> #banner - elements within a id

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